Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of a variety of infections that range from mild to severe. It is a bacterium that can interfere with the proper functions of the respiratory muscles and be fatal. It is the cause of various diseases ranging from abscesses to toxic shock syndrome. Many strains of S. aureus have exhibited antibiotic resistance and the antibiotics that are currently in the market have severe side effects. Hence we sought to understand natural treatments, as opposed to artificial treatments, to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. This may lead to the rescuing of lives, as S. aureus biofilm formation is a key virulence factor of this pathogen. By examining effective dosage levels of olive and coconut oil-based soaps to inhibit biofilm formation, this investigation seeks to find natural remedies for S. aureus infections. A standard crystal violet assay was used to test the antibacterial activities of the agents, extra virgin olive & coconut oil-based soaps. Even though there was skewing of results due to contamination of the wells, the overall trend supports our hypothesis that the agents possess antimicrobial properties that inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. We have also found that the threshold value of agents for inhibition of S.aureus biofilm formation lies between 0.1% and 0.01%. More diluted concentrations of those agents are not as effective against S. aureus biofilms.
The human gut microbiome is more important to health than most people realize. It is filled with trillions of microbes ranging from fungi to bacteria and viruses. This paper focuses on preservatives and emulsifiers and the effects they have on the gut microbiome. These two food additives affect different types of bacteria differently. Emulsifiers and preservatives increased bacteria that tend to have negative effects on the body, while decreasing beneficial bacteria. This can have many different effects on the body from Crohn's disease to dysbiosis and even increase antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. This review looks to explain why preservatives and emulsifiers have such negative effects, why it is such a relevant and important topic, and alternatives to preservatives or emulsifiers, or ways to mitigate the effects of these two food additives.