The transition form a centrally planned to market economy in the Russian Federation has been a dynamic period in the country's development. Within the time frame 1992-2009, Russia's economy has been characterized by a marked lack of stability, high uncertainty, and insufficient transparency in the financial markets. Efforts to improve the efficiency in the manufacturing sector have been futile, as the country has had to rely primarily on its extractive sector, capitalizing on the oil and natural gas assets throughout its large territory. In addition, the legal system during the two terms of Boris Yeltsin was in stagnation, and only Vladimir Putin's reforms after 2000 achieved mediocre success in this field. The shocks in 1998 and 2008 have also exerted their impact on the Russian markets, slowing development significantly. As a result of these events, foreign direct investment in the Russian Federation has undergone dynamic changes in the past eighteen years. Despite the rapid surge in FDI in the period 2004-2007, the Global Financial Crisis has curbed its growth. Still fighting the effects of the credit crunch, Russia is currently in the process of recovery, attempting to attract a substantial number of foreign investors.
In this paper, I will argue that foreign direct investment in the period 1992-2009 has been determined by a combination of economic and political factors, including trade and tariffs, GDP, inflation, the size of the market, labor costs, the fiscal balance, the exchange rate, agglomerations effects, infrastructure, and the methods of privatization. I will also contend that the global financial conditions have had a relatively minor impact on the development of FDI and the primary Factors are, in effect, endogenous. A linear regression with ordinary least squares and selected independent variables can provide a forecast for the levels of FDI in the future. In order to correct for autocorrelations, I will utilize the ARIMA approach, as well. Finally, I will provide a viable prediction for the levels of FDI in the next few years.
The purpose of this study is to investigate business practices, processes, decision-making and other characteristics of Hispanic-owned businesses in an urban area. Due to the fact that immigrant-owned businesses face unique challenges and may have differing approaches to small business management, a close examination of these businesses is an important area of research. A qualitative survey method was administered in face-to-face interviews of a small sample of Hispanic-owned businesses in Elizabeth, NJ. The survey examined the country of origin, possible inheritance, location preferences, capital, marketing, networking, involvement in the local community, struggles within the business, and successes as well as failures. While the study only looked at a small sample of businesses, several findings from these Hispanic-owned business surveys were relevant and can be explored further in a wider sample of businesses. None of the businesses in the sample claimed high success rates, but they all reported earnings were sufficient to stay open and to at least cover their family and business expenses. Although breaking even was a common trend, no one reported plans of closing the business anytime soon, which is strong indicator of the cultural background. it is apparent that profit is not the principal motive for these Hispanic business owners, and that more complex cultural and family influences affect behavior and decision making in many of these firms.
Dementia is a clinical syndrome known for its progressive cognitive decline and its interference with daily functioning. Multiple investigations have been designed and conducted on Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia, followed by research on vascular dementia. Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, have been prescribed to individuals to lower LDL-cholesterol levels and to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases. In the past decade, statins such as simvastatin and atorvastatin have exhibited pleiotropic effects in dementia treatment as these medications work to improve learning and memory abilities in mice models. Most studies designed to observe the effects of statins in reducing the risk of dementia have been performed on rodent organisms, yet, research indicates that the zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a successful model organism. The zebrafish can be utilized as a successful model to better understand the genetics, development, behavior, and reproduction of humans. Not only do zebrafish have a great ability for learning and memory functioning, but they also possess hippocampus-like structures and PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes strikingly similar to the ones found in humans with Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to this review, a suggested experiment has been designed to study two doses of simvastatin and two doses of atorvastatin in Aβ-induced zebrafish and observe how these statin types function in reducing the risk of learning and memory deficits.
The human gut microbiome is more important to health than most people realize. It is filled with trillions of microbes ranging from fungi to bacteria and viruses. This paper focuses on preservatives and emulsifiers and the effects they have on the gut microbiome. These two food additives affect different types of bacteria differently. Emulsifiers and preservatives increased bacteria that tend to have negative effects on the body, while decreasing beneficial bacteria. This can have many different effects on the body from Crohn's disease to dysbiosis and even increase antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. This review looks to explain why preservatives and emulsifiers have such negative effects, why it is such a relevant and important topic, and alternatives to preservatives or emulsifiers, or ways to mitigate the effects of these two food additives.
This paper presents the case that financial literacy can promote upward social mobility and that a lack thereof contributes to growing poverty rates across the globe amongst various different population groups. In particular, this paper outlines the negative implications associated with financial illiteracy by focusing on soon-to-be-retirees, college students, beginning investors, African Americans, and women.
The paper starts by providing definitions of financial literacy and social mobility. It then outlines the extent of how financially illiterate individuals across the world are. In this section, it is made evident that financial education correlated with wealth and that there are financial literacy disparities among minorities and women in society. This section also includes two surveys and a statistical interpretation of the data to demonstrate the extent of financial illiteracy amongst college students. For the surveys, one was of college students, and the other was of professionals in later stages of their careers. For both populations, the survey asked a set of questions to gauge the financial literacy of the individuals. Using a least squares regression analysis, this data suggests that age plays a role in how financially literate individuals are. Based on this information, it is concluded that older individuals are more financially literate as a result of learning from mistakes, not from formal education.
After this, the paper explores the negative effects of financial illiteracy, followed by the benefits provided by financial literacy. At this point, it is concluded that financial illiteracy contributes to retirement insecurity, the growing student loan crisis, erratic trading behavior, racial and gender wealth inequality, the use of harmful loans, and poor spending decisions. It also is concluded that proper financial education can result in wealth accumulation through investing, a comfortable and potentially early retirement, healthy spending habits, individuals having a financial safety blanket, and tax savings for the federal government.
Lastly, this paper offers suggestions to prevent financial illiteracy from persisting in the future, so more individuals can experience upward social mobility. The solutions suggested include the implementation of personal finance in high schools, encouraging interpersonal dialogues regarding finances, and making finance an enjoyable subject for individuals to follow.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic reached the United States in March of 2020. America quickly led the world in the number of confirmed coronavirus cases, which contributed to hospital overflow and healthcare worker burnout. Many units that were not typically equipped for such critical cases were converted into COVID units, and there was a high demand for nursing support as the virus peaked.
Objective: Since this study focuses on the self perceived mental health of the participants, the objective was to gather information pertaining to the lived experiences of these ICU nurses and how they feel/felt during the course of this pandemic.
Materials and method: Using snowball technique, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses who worked through the entirety of the COVID-19 pandemic will be interviewed through a Zoom call. They will be asked to describe their emotions while working on the front lines of the pandemic, and how those experiences have affected their mental health and their daily lives.
Results: All nine nurses agreed that working through the COVID-19 pandemic was a stressful and confusing experience. All nurses felt like they weren’t able to provide proper care to their patients at the beginning of the pandemic and they felt lost. Now, all of the nurses feel more knowledgeable and more comfortable working with COVID positive patients. Four nurses sought out psychological support for their mental health, and one nurse considered it. Coping mechanisms varied from positive and negative habits, including cooking/baking, reading, sleeping, eating, smoking, drinking, talking to family, and talking to other nurses.
Conclusion: ICU nurses face a great deal of pressure on a regular basis, and the outbreak of COVID-19 contributed to that stress leading many nurses to feel burnt out. The nine nurses that were interviewed had varying degrees of coping and psychological trauma.
Bitcoin has generated much interest from the financial community throughout its life and utilization as a crypto-currency. In the continual advancement of the market, financiers and fund managers have explored the opportunities of developing investment vehicles utilizing Bitcoin, with multiple firms competing to develop a Bitcoin Exchange Traded Fund traded in the United States. However, under much speculation, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has denied multiple requests for fund managers to develop a Bitcoin ETF for the financial market.
The thesis essay explores the feasibility of utilizing Bitcoin in a fund investment vehicle such as a Bitcoin Exchange Traded Fund (ETF). The paper explores the qualitative and quantitative factors that may impact a Bitcoin Exchange Traded Fund and Exchange Traded Funds' history and structure and analyzing proposals by financial firms and SEC responses to those proposals, and analyzing the Bitcoin market and systemic risks. Finally, an analysis of historical data and potential market drivers is utilized to confirm claims by the financial firms and SEC.
The findings indicated that Bitcoin would be challenging to generate return for fund managers. Its risk factors create extra constraints for Bitcoin funds to operate in with no signs of mitigation in the future. Moreover, the volatility and unpredictability of Bitcoin are also caused by the lack of market drivers for the fund. Essentially in its current state, its lack of remedies for its risk factors has caused Bitcoin to be unfeasible to be placed in an Exchange Traded Fund and would place financial firms and its investors at risks.
This thesis aims to answer the following question, composed of two elements; How does your zipcode impact access to higher education? What does attaining a college education mean in terms of earning potential and economic mobility over 40 years? This question requires a further understanding of the factors which contribute to what is known as the achievement gap, and forces its readers to broaden their horizons when considering the components which affect a student's ability to further their education or career. Primarily concerning the foundations and backgrounds of students throughout the nation, this thesis examines studies referring to millions of students throughout the past decades from all around the country. The goal is to develop an understanding surrounding the cause and effects of students' educational and economic mobility, and diligent research leading to a deeper comprehension of the topic is the best way to accomplish this.
Gender and pay have been linked across all types of industries. This thesis will explore the gender pay gap in the sports industry with a specific concentration in the sport of soccer, which is known as football outside the United States. A comparison between the United States National Soccer Team for men and women will be used to argue the causes and effects of a gender pay gap. With the use of research and interviews, this thesis will explain how the gender pay gap affects female athletes. Men and women in the soccer industry play the same sport, yet face a discrepancy in their earnings. This discrepancy continues to exist even after many fights against gender inequality throughout the world.
Many countries throughout the world have been able to reach a equal pay agreement for their national soccer teams. Meanwhile, other countries are on the road to implementing equal pay agreements. The countries that have been able to reach an equal pay agreement will be used to carefully analyze how such countries were able to reach an agreement. With the comparison between foreign countries and the United States based on gender equity pay in the sports industry, this thesis will conclude whether or not the gender pay gap can be narrowed, or even resolved. Based on the findings, this thesis will provide a possible solution to diminish the gap with the use of marketing techniques.
This paper investigates whether there is a link between a nation's response to covid-19 and their current/future economic position. It uses New Zealand and the United States as case studies, and has the initial position that, since New Zealand had a more effective response to covid-19 and was able to control the virus at an earlier stage, then they should be in a better economic position, not only currently, but for the future. This is based on the key Keynesian principles of uncertainty, confidence, and investment. However, even though New Zealand has eliminated the virus and been able to completely open the country, compared to the United States, which is still in a battle with covid-19, the current economic data does not support the initial thesis. This could be due to either the economic data yet reflecting New Zealand's success, or the key Keynesian principle of irrationality. A follow up study in the future will be required to tell whether the initial thesis is correct.