A Review on the Effects of Simvastatin (Zocor) and Atorvastatin (Lipitor) on Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia Public Deposited
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Dementia is a clinical syndrome known for its progressive cognitive decline and its interference with daily functioning. Multiple investigations have been designed and conducted on Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia, followed by research on vascular dementia. Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, have been prescribed to individuals to lower LDL-cholesterol levels and to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases. In the past decade, statins such as simvastatin and atorvastatin have exhibited pleiotropic effects in dementia treatment as these medications work to improve learning and memory abilities in mice models. Most studies designed to observe the effects of statins in reducing the risk of dementia have been performed on rodent organisms, yet, research indicates that the zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a successful model organism. The zebrafish can be utilized as a successful model to better understand the genetics, development, behavior, and reproduction of humans. Not only do zebrafish have a great ability for learning and memory functioning, but they also possess hippocampus-like structures and PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes strikingly similar to the ones found in humans with Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to this review, a suggested experiment has been designed to study two doses of simvastatin and two doses of atorvastatin in Aβ-induced zebrafish and observe how these statin types function in reducing the risk of learning and memory deficits.
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