A review of the possible protective effects and antioxidative mechanisms of melatonin and vitamin D against BPA-induced thyroid toxicity Public Deposited
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Hyperthyroidism is a pathological disorder caused by the excess production of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in the thyroid gland, inducing oxidative stress. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most manufactured substances worldwide, is primarily used in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins found in plastics. It is widely studied because of its teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting potential. It causes thyroid hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to increase by its inhibition mechanism, leading to thyroid toxicity. Studies show that some products can have protective effects against BPA exposure. Both melatonin and vitamin D are known for their antioxidant properties and homeostatic functioning of the mitochondria by reducing ROS production. This means that a possible synergistic relationship between melatonin and vitamin D could ameliorate the effects of BPA-induced thyroid toxicity. The purpose of this study is to review the effects of oxidative stress on the thyroid caused by BPA and the possible protective effects and antioxidant mechanisms of melatonin and vitamin D against BPA-induced thyroid toxicity.
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